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博物馆翻译之故宫藏品翻译

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本次案例提供的是故宫博物院文物翻译,由言灵语言团队负责,为故宫博物院的展品布展工作提供跨语言服务。

铜镀金斋戒人

清朝

《清会典》载“铜人立形,手执斋戒铜牌。”祭祀前太常寺官会进斋戒铜人于宫中乾清门,皇帝、与祭各官均斋戒三日。斋戒铜人一般安于殿庭处,意在检束身心、竭诚致敬,使不稍放逸。

Bronze gilding figure for fasting and purification

The bronze figure was hung on the courtyard or hall such as the Gate of Heavenly Purity before the ceremony. It helped to restrain the emperor and the clergy for sacrifice to be careful about their acts.

 

木质斋戒牌

清朝斋戒是对受祭者表示诚敬的礼仪。致斋之日,皇帝与王公大臣、宫中行走皆佩戴斋戒牌,不仅身上佩带,还要悬挂在显而易见的门窗帘帐上,以示多重提醒。牌形方圆皆有,形质银、玉、木、象牙不一。佩带斋戒牌意在提醒自己:斋戒期间不饮酒食肉,不闻乐理刑;祭戒时孝子要思念亲存之五事:思其居处、思其笑语、思其志意、思其所乐、思其所嗜。

Abstinence plaques and Pendants for fasting and purification

Pendants with all kinds of shape and materials were worn in accompany with their masters or hung on the living room. They were used to remind the dutiful son’s daily food, drink and movement.

 

斋戒祭祀单

清朝

  祭不欲数,数则烦,烦则不敬。祭不欲疏,疏则怠,怠则忘。明清各种祭祖形式交替进行,宗庙香烟不断各个典礼时间上的安排也比较均匀。

Sacrificial record for fasting and purification

Frequent sacrifice made the people tired while little salute was neglect and impolite. So all kinds of ceremonies for ancestors in Ming and Qing Dynasty replaced in turn in the Fengxiandian Hall. The arrangement of time was well distributed.

 

嘉庆二十三年四月初四日《呈奉先殿现在轮班行礼阿哥五贝勒贝子名单》

清朝

奉先殿除由皇帝亲祭外,也遣皇子、亲王、贝勒代祭。此为嘉庆年间轮班行礼的名单。

The name list for salute in the Fengxiandian Hall(reproduction)

It was a record for the salute on duty by turn on April in the 23th year of the Jiaqing Emperor. When the emperor could not did it himself, his crown prince, prince, the 3rd and the 4th rank of the nobility would take the place of him.

 

  木彩绘云龙欲报之德中和韶乐舞干

祭祀乐舞时武舞生左手执之。

Coloring wooden shield

The military dancing boys held them in their left hands when the music were played.

 

  

祭祀乐舞时武舞生右手执之。为祭祀百物山川之用物。

Qi

A ceremonial axe used in dancing was held in the military dancing boys’ right hands. It had a black back and the edge of it was always white.

 

红漆龙头羽

祭祀乐舞时文舞生右手执之。

Red lacquer feather of wild birds

This ceremonial instrument had a wooden handle and was held on the right hands of the civil dancing boys. It helped to made the people’s appearance grave.

 

 

木彩画中和韶乐柷

原存奉先殿内。柷、敔同属八音中的木,柷与俶同,

Zhu

This historical relics were preserved in the Fengxiandian Hall for the use of the beginning of the music. This wooden instrument was one of the Eight Musical Instruments.

 

 

 

清乾隆款金漆冥宝座

           神牌在祭祀时由后殿请出,安放到前殿的宝座上。

           神座为硬木制成,饰以金漆。帝座雕饰蟠龙,后座

           雕饰翔凤。

Throne for ancestral tablets

Ancestral tablets were brought from the rear to the front and placed on the thrones for sacrifice. The emperors’ tablets were put on the thrones carved with coiled dragons while the empresses on the phoenixes.

 

木金漆簠

    盛稻粱的方形祭器,始于西周,与圆形的簋相对。

Fu

This rectangular covered dish with straight sloping sides was used as a container for cooked cereals. The lid of it was similar to the main body.

 

木金漆簋

盛黍稷的圆形祭器,与方形的簠相对。

Gui

Compared with the rectangular Fu, the circular Gui was a bowl with or without cover and ears.It was always used as a container for grain and other foodstuffs.

 

乾隆款金爵

爵为周代礼器。祭礼中以爵奠酒于地,

        意在慰问地下形体。

Jue

This goblet made of gold was a tripod cup with projecting lip. Most Jues have two small pillars, a few have one or none. This sparrow-shaped cup was always used to convey greetings to the ancestors by wine.

 

乾隆铜牺尊

古人祭祖,以爵酌尊中酒以献。尊有牺尊(牛形)、象

尊、著尊、壶尊四种,在不同的时节用于盛不同的物

品以祭祀。

Zun

This vessel in the form of a rhinoceros was used for Sacrifice-offering ceremony in the first month of spring .Wine was put in it and the other forms were used in other seasons. The elephant shaped Zun used in the first month of summer while the cup in autumn and the jar in winter.

 

 

乾隆款登

    奉先殿登为黄色,用于盛太羹,即清肉汁。

Deng

 This saucer had the same form like Dou and Bian. Compared with the bamboo Bian, we called the Dou made of clay Deng. With the design of sea, key-fret and dragons among clouds, gravy and meat juice were put in it to sacrifice ancestors.

 

金勺

     奉先殿祭祀时以勺取玉泉酒(祭祀用清酒)奠献祖宗。

Gold Shao

This ladle for serving fluids had a long handle and deep bowl. It helped people to ladle out the Yuquanjiu Wine conveniently to the Jue or Zun.

 

金錾花箸

     大享和告祭时,每一神位前都会摆上金勺一个,金箸一双。

Gold chopsticks

During the ceremony ,there were one gold Shao and two gold chopsticks placed in front of every tablet.

 

银镀金香盒

放香之盒。大享时,在神位香案前上香需先上柱香,后三上瓣香。

Incense box

Before every tablet, the emperor light the joss stick and then the incense coil. This help to link up the human being and the gods.

 

 

光绪十四年正月十五日掌仪司《奉先殿大祭档》

此档记录了奉先殿大祭时执事官员的名单,若当日官员有丁忧、差、病、假、出缺等情况,则由备班官员替补。

The Record of the Sacrifice-offering ceremony

It was a name list of the official in the grand sacrifice. The substitute official would take the place of the ones who was away on official trip, completion of mourning period, ill health, vacation, vacancy and so on.

 

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Language:Chinese-EnglishIndustry:Hospitality and Tourism

Solution:Cultural Relics TranslationTime:2007